Sanja Hadzic, Mirjana Gojkov-Vukelic, Enes Pasic, Almir Dervisevic
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the importance of early diagnosis of potentially malignant lesions in the prevention of oral cancer. Material and methods: In order to achieve the set objectives, we selected our participant pool. Of the 340 patients who came to the initial examination at the Clinic for Oral Medicine and Periodontology, we selected 40 patients with potentially malignant oral lesions (PMOL) of both sexes and of different ages. After an extensive anamnesis and a clinical examination of all mucous membranes, we documented potentially malignant lesions, their localization, subjective and objective symptoms, duration of pathological lesion, and bad habits (smoking and alcohol). All lesions were colored with Toluidine blue, which indicates malignancy in 75% of cases. Patients who had a positive Toluidine blue staining test were sent to biopsy and pathohistological analysis. Results: The most common potentially malignant lesions are Lichen reticularis (25%), Lichen erosivus (20%), and Leukoplakia (15%). The most common localization of lesions is the buccal mucosa bilaterally (26%), buccal mucosa unilaterally (10%), and the lower lip (10%). The staining test with Toluidine blue was positive at 23% PMOLs. In patients with positive Toluidine staining findings, biopsy and pathohistological analysis were performed, which showed that 20% of all lesions are carcinoma (CIS, Baseocellular Carcinoma, Squamocellular Carcinoma), while 14% are mucosal epithelial dysplasia. Statistical analysis confirmed the significance of positive staining of Toluidine blue and Leukoplakia (Spearman’s coefficient = 0.427, p = 0.006, N = 40), and statistically significant positive association of Squamocellular Carcinoma and Toluidine blue staining (Spearman’s coefficient = 0.619, p = 0.000, N = 40). Conclusion: Most oral cancers are caused by potentially malignant lesions, which is why a very detailed clinical examination with the visualization of pathological lesions is very important. Toluidine blue test can be an auxiliary tool for clinical diagnosis but does not replace the pathohistological finding. Biopsy and pathohistological findings are the gold standard in the diagnosis of oral cancers, as confirmed in our research.
[Mater Sociomed 2017; 29(2.000): 129-133]
Keywords: oral cancer, potentially malignant lesions, Toluidine test, biopsy